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Egypt's hardline NGOs law would be 'death blow' to civil society

‘It appears merely to be an attempt to scapegoat NGOs as a way to divert attention away from the authorities’ poor record’ - Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui

A new law on non-governmental organisations in Egypt, currently with the country’s Shura Council, would effectively be a death blow to independent civil society in Egypt, said Amnesty International this afternoon.

If it passes in its current form, the Egyptian authorities would have wide-ranging powers over the registration, activities and funding of civil society organisations. It would also allow for the creation of a new Co-ordinating Committee, which is likely to include representatives of security and intelligence agencies. Those found in violation of the law would face hefty fines and potential prison sentences.

President Morsi announced today that he had referred the law to the Shura Council, Egypt’s nominal upper house of parliament. While the lower house remains dissolved, the Council has the authority to pass new legislation until elections are held to elect a lower house.

Under the proposed law, any organisation that wants official registration must notify the Ministry of Insurance and Social Affairs, which can raise objections. This procedure is a form of prior authorisation, which is inconsistent with international standards. Article 13 of the draft law states that any NGO seeking foreign funding must notify a newly created Co-ordinating Committee, which would have the power to approve or reject the request. The law also states that organisations must annually provide copies of their accounts, reports of programmes and sources of funding to the Regional Union (which the law defines as a “voluntary” union created by NGOs) and the Ministry of Insurance and Social Affairs. The Ministry can then object to any of the organisation’s decisions and take the matter to court.

Under Article 16 any individual, association, or body would be allowed to examine records of the organisation’s activities, after submitting a request to the Ministry of Insurance and Social Solidarity or the Regional Union. In practice, this is likely to open the door for the security agencies to control and interfere in the work of human rights organisations.

Amnesty International Middle East and North Africa Deputy Director Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui said:

“It is staggering that considering the huge economic, political and social challenges faced by Egypt today, the new authorities have prioritised marshalling through a draconian NGOs law that is so reminiscent of Mubarak-era rhetoric and tactics to stifle NGOs.

“It appears merely to be an attempt to scapegoat NGOs as a way to divert attention away from the authorities’ poor record.

“Passing a law such as this one in a country with a long history of cracking down on the work of human rights organisations would be incredibly dangerous. If Egypt is serious about moving forward from its recent past, the authorities must turn away from this law and instead enable an environment for NGOs to ensure human rights are protected and promoted.”

The proposed law is particularly draconian in regards to the registration and activities of international NGOs, which in practice can prevent international human rights organisations critical of the country’s human rights record from carrying out any work in Egypt. The law would in effect give the authorities the power to restrict the registration, funding and activities of NGOs which expose human rights violations or defend victims of abuse.

Since the 2011 “25 January Revolution”, the Egyptian authorities have already cracked down on independent civil society, including human rights organisations. Several NGOs which are registered with the Ministry of Insurance and Social Affairs, including women’s rights organisations, told Amnesty that they have been waiting for up to 16 months for permission to obtain funding.

In July 2011, the Egyptian government launched an investigation into the foreign funding of NGOs, leading to an unprecedented series of raids on international and Egyptian civil society groups that December. Following the raids, 43 staff members of international organisations were put on trial on charges of operating without official registration and obtaining foreign funding without the authorities’ permission. The verdict is expected on 4 June.

The crackdown has continued under President Mohamed Morsi, who took office in June 2012. Earlier this year, the Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights received a letter from the government warning it that it was not allowed to engage with “international entities” without the permission of the security forces.

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