83% of Syria's lights extinguished after four years of crisis

In the worst-affected areas of Syria 97% of the lights have been extinguished since March 2011 © #withsyria coalition and Wuhan University
‘In the worst-affected areas, like Aleppo, a staggering 97% of the lights have gone out’
In Syria 83% of all the lights in Syria have gone out since the start of the conflict there, a global coalition of humanitarian and human rights organisations has revealed ahead of the fourth anniversary of the crisis on 15 March. 
Analysing satellite images, scientists based at Wuhan University in China (see below for more details), in co-operation with the #withSyria coalition of 130 non-governmental organisations, have shown that the number of lights visible over Syria at night has fallen by 83% since March 2011. 
The lead researcher on the Wuhan University project, Dr Xi Li, said:
“Satellite imagery is the most objective source of data showing the devastation of Syria on a national scale.
“Taken from 500 miles above the earth, these images help us understand the suffering and fear experienced by ordinary Syrians every day, as their country is destroyed around them. 
“In the worst-affected areas, like Aleppo, a staggering 97% of the lights have gone out. The exceptions are the provinces of Damascus and Quneitra, near the Israeli border, where the decline in light has been 35% and 47% respectively.” 
Amnesty International Middle East and North Africa Director Philip Luther said:
“For many Syrian civilians for much of the past four years life has been blighted by darkness and suffering. 
“Yet another year has passed and the situation remains catastrophic. Gross human rights abuses, war crimes and crimes against humanity continue to be committed by government forces and some armed groups, including Islamic State. Scores of peaceful activists and opposition figures remain in detention centres where torture has been committed on an industrial scale, while others have been unlawfully killed.”
The #withSyria coalition also today released a hard-hitting film and launched a global petition that calls on world leaders to “turn the lights back on in Syria” by: 
  • Prioritising a political solution with human rights at its heart
  • Boosting the humanitarian response both for those inside Syria and refugees, including through increased resettlement
  • Insisting that all parties put an end to attacks on civilians and stop blocking aid 
Dr Zaher Sahoul, President of the Syrian American Medical Society, said:
“The rise of terrorist groups crossing borders has spread fear and focused the world’s attention on Syria - but it has distracted governments from the suffering of ordinary Syrians and the abuses committed by all sides in this conflict. Every day Syrian medics, aid workers and teachers are taking enormous risks to help their neighbours and loved ones, while the international community continuously fails to pursue a political solution and an end to the violence and suffering.” 
In 2014, the UN Security Council adopted three resolutions that demanded action to secure protection and assistance for civilians in Syria. Since then, thousands of Syrians have been killed, and more people have been displaced or are in need of help than ever before. A new report - ‘Failing Syria’ - released today accuses warring parties and powerful states of failing to achieve what these resolutions set out to do. 
Jan Egeland, Secretary General of the Norwegian Refugee Council and former United Nations Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, said:
“2014 was the darkest year yet in this horrific war. Civilians are not protected as the Security Council promised they would be, their access to relief has not improved and humanitarian funding is declining compared to the needs. It is an outrage how we are failing Syrians.” 

Notes to editors 

The analysis of satellite imagery of Syria was conducted by Dr. Xi Li of the Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing at Wuhan University in China. These figures were updated from Dr Xi’s (2014) study published in the International Journal of Remote Sensing, in which he and Prof Deren Li analysed the effect of the Syrian Crisis on levels of night-time light as a means of evaluating and monitoring the conflict. By comparing the levels of light in March 2011 and February 2014, they found that in all of the provinces, the levels of night-time light had declined sharply following the breakout of the conflict. Indeed, in most provinces, the level of night-time light decreased by more than 60%. The authors also found that the number of internally displaced persons from each province showed a linear correlation with the level of night-light loss. 
The province-by-province percentage decline in light is as follows: Idlib (96%); Al-Hasakah (77%); Al-Raqqah (96%); Al-Suwayda (80%); Quneitra (47%); Latakia (88%); Aleppo (97%); Hama (87%); Homs (87%); Daraa (74%); Deir ez-Zor (90%); Rif Dimashq (78%); Tartus (87%); Damascus (33%). 
These satellite images, spanning the four years of crisis, are available here.

The #withSyria coalition 

The #withSyria coalition is a movement of humanitarian and human rights organisations from around the world, including Amnesty International, the International Rescue Committee and Save the Children, standing in solidarity with those caught in the conflict. More information, including a new petition and global campaign film
A group of aid agencies today also released a scathing critique of the UN Security Council powers, detailing how they have failed civilians in Syria. The report, from International Rescue Committee, Norwegian Refugee Council, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision, shows that although three UN resolutions meant to secure protection and assistance for civilians were passed last year, humanitarian access to large parts of Syria has diminished and more people are being killed, displaced and are in need of assistance. 
The video for the campaign, Afraid of the Dark, was created by multi-award-winning agency Don’t Panic. It starts with a young Syrian teenager living a comfortable life, with little more to be afraid of than the dark. But then we realise he is having a flashback to four years ago. Now, he is a 17-year-old doing what he can to rescue other young victims of the conflict from the darkness that surrounds them. 
The full list of signatories to this release is: Alkarama Foundation, American Friends Service Committee, Amnesty International, Andalus Institute for Tolerance and anti-Violence Studies, Arab Coalition for Sudan, Arab Foundation for Civil Society, Arab Program For Human Rights Activists, Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society, Broederlijk Delen, CAABU (Council for Arab-British Understanding), CAFOD, Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, CARE International,  Caritas Australia, Center for Victims of Torture , Christian Aid, Church of England, CIVIC, Darfur Bar Association, Doctors of the World UK, Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network, Fraternity Birati Center for Democracy and Civil Society, Global Center for R2P, Global Communities, GOAL, Governance Bureau - Sudan, Hand in Hand for Syria, HelpAge International, Human Rights & Democracy Media Center “SHAMS", Human Rights First Society - Saudi Arabia, Human Rights Watch, Humanist Institute for Development Cooperation (HIVOS), International Rescue Committee (IRC), Islamic Relief Worldwide, Justice et Paix, Lebanese Center for Human Rights, Ligue des droits de l'Homme (LDH), MAP UK, Médecins du Monde (MdM), MercyCorps, Najda-Now, No Peace Without Justice, Norwegian Church Aid, Norwegian Refugee Council, One World Egypt, Open Doors International, Doors UK & Ireland, Oxfam France, Pax Christi International, People In Need, Physicians for Human Rights, Protection Approaches, Refugees International, Refugee Council, Relief & Reconciliation for Syria AISBL, Rethink Rebuild Society, Solidarités International, Sudan Social Development Organisations (SUDO UK), Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS), Syrian Relief and Development, Syrian Women. Hand in Hand, Tearfund, The Day After Association, The Syria Campaign, The Violation Documentation Center in Syria, Trocaire, United to End Genocide, World Food Program USA, World Vision, World Vision UK, Zarga Organisation for Rural Development (ZORD) - Sudan.

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